It is the most widely spoken Germanic language, accounting for at least 70 of speakers of this Indo-European branch.  via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.) Conrad, Andrew.; Rubal-Lopez, Alma. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. "English Language Imperialism: Points of View". Making primary school teachers more aware of the primacy of morpheme representation in English may help learners

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learn more efficiently to read and write English. Archived from the original on Retrieved Blench,.; Spriggs, Matthew (1999). 146 Closing diphthongs RP GA Word e b ay o r oa d a cr y a c ow b oy Centering diphthongs RP GA word p eer e p air p oor In RP, vowel length is phonemic; long vowels are marked with.

University of Michigan Press. In the countries of the EU, English is the most widely spoken foreign language in nineteen of the twenty-five member states where it is not an official language (that is, the countries other than the UK, Ireland and Malta ). Retrieved 19 December 2014 via De Gruyter. The differences in the pronunciations of the letters c and g are often signalled by the following letters in standard English spelling. Journal of English as an International Language. Modern English syntax language is moderately analytic. He woke up in the morning and he ran up in the mountains are syntactically equivalent. Retrieved Lay summary (6 February 2015). Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.


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Ordered profusion; studies in pute khenifra annonce salope avis dictionaries and the English lexicon. Clusters of obstruents always agree pute khenifra annonce salope avis invoicing, and clusters of sibilants and of plosives with the same point of articulation are prohibited. First, the waves of Norse colonisation of northern parts of the British Isles in the 8th and 9th centuries put Old English into intense contact with Old Norse, a North Germanic language. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Instead, they consider the construction simply to be a verb with a prepositional phrase as its syntactic complement,.e. English is not mutually intelligible with any continental Germanic language, differing in vocabulary, syntax, and phonology, although some of these, such as Dutch or Frisian, do show strong affinities with English, especially with its earlier stages. In English, adjectives come before the nouns they modify and after determiners. Some differences between the various dialects are shown in the table "Varieties of Standard English and their features". This has led some scholars to develop the study of English as an auxiliary language. "Pluricentric and Divided Languages". via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.) Aitken,. Retrieved "How many words are there in the English language?". While grammarians such as Henry Sweet and Otto Jespersen noted that the English cases did not correspond to the traditional Latin based system, some contemporary grammars, for example Huddleston Pullum (2002), retain traditional labels for the cases, calling them nominative and accusative cases respectively. Lenis consonants are partly voiced at the beginning and end of utterances, and fully voiced between vowels. "Variation in Nonnative Varieties of English". Even after the vowel shift the language still sounded different from Modern English: for example, the consonant clusters /kn n sw/ in knight, gnat, and sword were still pronounced. Clear l : RP light lat dark l : RP and GA full f, GA light at All sonorants (liquids /l, r/ and nasals /m, n, devoice when following a voiceless obstruent, and they are syllabic when following a consonant at the end. New York: Mouton de Gruyter,. Encyclopedia of language linguistics. The table below lists the vowel phonemes in Received Pronunciation (RP) and General American (GA with examples of words in which they occur from lexical sets compiled by linguists. English Next India: The future of English in India (PDF). I was running and compound tenses such as preterite perfect ( I had been running ) and present perfect ( I have been running ). English is, by international treaty, the basis for the required controlled natural languages Seaspeak and Airspeak, used as international languages of seafaring and aviation. Subordinate clauses may function as arguments of the verb in the main clause. The words in English learned first by children as they learn to speak, particularly the grammatical words that dominate the word count of both spoken and written texts, are mainly the Germanic words inherited from the earliest periods of the development of Old English. Accents like Cockney with " h -dropping" lack the glottal fricative /h and dialects with th -stopping and th -fronting like African American Vernacular and Estuary English do not have the dental fricatives but replace them with dental or alveolar stops /t, d/ or labiodental. The Times of India. The distinctions between English as a first language, as a second language, and as a foreign language are often debatable and may change in particular countries over time.




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English was adopted in parts of North America, parts of Africa, Australasia, and many other regions. The phrase then functions as a single predicate. "Chapter 2: The Old English Language". A syllable can start with up to three consonant sounds, as in sprint /sprnt and end with up to four, as in texts /teksts/. Lay summary (4 February 2015). Native speakers are now substantially outnumbered worldwide by second-language speakers of English (not counted in this chart). A b Finkenstaedt, Thomas; Dieter Wolff (1973). At the time of the Survey of English Dialects, grammar and vocabulary differed across the country, but a process of lexical attrition has led most of this variation to disappear.